The VCR format was introduced in 1972, just after the Sony U-matic format in 1971. Although at first glance the two might appear to have been competing formats, they were aimed at very different markets. U-matic was introduced as a professional television production format, whilst VCR was targeted particularly at educational but also domestic users. Unlike some other early formats such as Cartrivision, the VCR format does record a high-quality video signal without resorting to Skip field.
Home video systems had previously been available, but they were open-reel systems (most notably made by Sony) and were expensive to both buy and operate. They were also unreliable and often only recorded in black and white such as the EIAJ-1. The VCR system was easy to use and recorded in colour but was still expensive: the N1500 recorder cost nearly £600 in the United Kingdom when it was introduced in 1972, the equivalent of just over £6000 in 2009.
By comparison a small car (the Morris Mini) could be purchased for just over £600.
The system predated the development of the slant azimuth technique to prevent crosstalk between adjacent video tracks, so it had to use an unrecorded guard band between tracks. This required the system to run at a high tape speed of 11.26 inches per second.
Despite its limitations, the Philips VCR system was groundbreaking and brought together many advances in video recording technology to produce the first truly practical home video cassette system. The very first Philips N1500 model included all the essential elements of a domestic video cassette recorder:
- Simple loading of cassette and simple operation by "Piano Key" controls, with full auto-stop at tape ends.
- A tuner for recording off-air television programmes.
- A clock with timer for unattended recordings.
- A modulator to allow connection to a normal (for the time) television receiver without audio and video input connectors.
PHILIPS VCR Model Numbering:The First Philips machine was model number N1500, after which the format is also known. This had "first generation" mechanics including magnetic braking servo systems applied to relatively large mains voltage induction motors. The later model N1502 had a totally different mechanism using DC motors and more advanced electronics, and was somewhat more reliable. A later version again was still called N1502 but had further significant mechanical and electronic advances, and in particular had a worm drive for operation of the loading mechanism rather than a fragile plastic gearbox assembly. The N1512 model offered composite video input and output connectors, but was otherwise the same as the N1502. The VCR-LP model N1700 was closely related to the later N1502 variant. Other, rarer Philips models included stereo sound and editing capabilities.
Grundig built a VCR4000 VCR-LP model which had microprocessor control and so treated the tapes more gently than the purely mechanical decks, and the SVR4004 (SVR format) model was very similar. Other Grundig models included the VCR3000 (believed to be VCR format) and VCR5000AV (believed to be dual format VCR and VCR-LP).
Although only a few years after the original N1500, and the same format, the 1502 could hardly look more different. Gone is the wood and aluminium styling, replaced by a battleship grey plastic case, and the analogue clock has been upgraded to a digital timer.
In fact all the controls - now all on the sloping fascia - have been re-worked, with the single exception of the rotary tracking knob on the left. The colour-killer, audio meter and audio level control have disappeared, the machine being entirely automatic, and the operating keys are now set flush with the fascia.
The carriage is an unusual tilting affair, released by a lever which also controls the power to the machine. This means that you can't eject without switching the machine off; however, this is more logical than it sounds as VCR format machines keep the tape laced as long as the power is on.
The 1502 added a still-frame button; when this was in the 'on' position, the picture being scanned by the heads was sent to the TV even when the tape was stopped. The still picture produced is surprisingly good, with no noise bars or other disruption.
The timer allowed a recording to be programmed several days in advance, though only one recording could be set up, and the clock is backed-up by a battery so that power-cuts will not cause the machine to lose the time - or more seriously, the programmed recording.
Internally, the layout is pretty much the same as the 1500, though more electronic circuits are crammed in. A few chips are now used, though most of the electronics is still discrete, with aluminium cans shielding each circuit from interference from those around it.
The picture sharpener circuit, optional on the 1500, is now built in.
|Description:||Second generation VCR format video.|
|Features:||Basic record and playback, 1 event 3 day timer on electronic clock, Automatic audio record level only, Stop motion button, Hydraulic eject (Sort of), Picture crispener.|
|Format:||VCR (Video Cassette Recording).|
|Tape Width:||0.5 inch.|
|Tape Speed:||14.29 cm / sec.|
|Record / Playback method:||Helical scan with guard bands.|
|Video Track Width:||130μM (Plus 57μM guard-bands between tracks).|
|Theoretical Resolution:||3MHz < 12dB|
|Audio record format:||2 linear channels on VCR standard, only one channel used on this model.|
|Max Record / Playback Time:||1 hour with VC60 cassette or 1 hour and 10 minutes with LVC150 cassette.|
|Misc:||Circuitry and internal layout was much more modular than the first generation Philips VCRs. Used quiet DC motors (First generation VCR's used hefty synchronous AC mains motors).|
The invention relates to an apparatus for recording and reproducing signals, particularly video signals, on a magnetic tape which is disposed in spools lying one above the other concentrically in a cassette and is adapted to be laid by a tape extracting device with a pair of grippers engaging behind the magnetic tape, in two tape loops running towards one another in opposite directions, against the periphery of a slit head drum in which at least one magnetic head rotates.
For the recording of picture signals and their reproduction on a magnetic tape, many diverse methods and apparatuses are known. The methods can be divided into longitudinal, transverse, and inclined trace recording. In longitudinal trace recording, the tape feed or speed is equal to the scanning speed. In order to achieve adequate playblack times for a predetermined length of magnetic tape the scanning speed must be kept low. However, the attainable upper frequency limit and consequently the quality of the television picture are thereby impaired. The process is therefore not suitable for small, inexpensive video recorders. In the transverse trace method the video signal is recorded in transverse tracks lying side by side. Although the tape speed is reduced in this process, nevertheless it is not possible to accommodate a television frame on a transverse track. The transverse trace method can therefore be put into practice technically only at great expense and is consequently also out of the question for inexpensive video recorders. Thus only the inclined trace method remains for such recorders.
The inclined trace or helical scan method has a number of advantages, which particularly affect the construction of inexpensive video recorders. These advantages include the low tape speed, which is between 4.75 and 19.05 centimeters per second, the good utilisation of the tape by means of inclined tracks, since an inclined track can accommodate an entire television frame, and also the relatively low electronic expense for the magnetic head and magnetic tape servo control. Finally, the good picture quality which can be achieved is also not to be ignored.
In order to achieve the necessary high relative speed between the magnetic head and the magnetic tape, the video heads rotate on a head disc inside a slit head drum around which the magnetic tape is slung helically. The video heads extend about 50 microns over the periphery of the head drum. The tape traction ensures good contact between the magnetic tape and the magnetic heads.
The speed of rotation of the head disc depends on the number of magnetic heads. In two-head systems, the head disc must rotate at 25 revolutions per second, and in single-head systems at 50 revolutions per second (in the NTSC system 30 and 60 revolutions per second respectively).
In addition to the number of video heads and the width of the magnetic tape, the angle of contact of the magnetic tape around the head drum is also of decisive importance for the functioning of the apparatus. In this respect a distinction is made between alpha-wrap covering 360° and omega-wrap covering slightly more than 180°. In the case of 360° wrap of the head drum only one rotating magnetic head is required. The track recorded by it contains a complete television picture, so that a stationary picture can also be scanned with good picture quality. It is however extremely difficult to achieve 360° wrap of the magnetic tape around the head drum. This difficulty is even greater when a video recorder has to work with cassettes. It is true that numerous tape extraction devices for cassette video recorders are already known. None of these however is able to lay the magnetic tape around the periphery of the head drum over an angle of 360° or more. Techniques known from spool apparatus cannot be applied to cassette apparatus. In addition, they are usually expensive.
According to the invention, in an apparatus of the aforementioned kind, the tape diverting device is arranged so as to be pivotable along an arc of a circle away from the cassette, when the latter has been placed on the apparatus, about part of the drum, whilst during the pivoting movement of the tape diverting device the tape is engaged by the tape guide and is wound around the cylindrical outer surface of the drum. The steps according to the invention ensure a particularly simple and reliable construction which permits a satisfactory control of the tolerances in respect of the relative positions of the tape diverting device and the drum which have to satisfy stringent requirements.
The pivotal movement of the tape diverting device can be effected in a variety of manners. Advantageously the tape diverting device includes a support carrying the tape guide stud, which support is pivotable about an axis arranged at right angles to the principal plane of the cassette. It has been found to be particularly advantageous for the tape diverting device to be provided with a support which carries the tape guide stud and is pivotable about an axis extending in the same direction as the drum axis. In this case a particularly accurate construction is obtainable by designing the support and the drum as an integral unit adapted to pivot about the axis of the support. An arrangement which is particularly advantageous is obtained if, with the tape wound around the drum, the drum axis is closer to the cassette than is the pivoting axis of the tape diverting device.
Obviously, there are several manners in which the tape diverting device can be pivoted. For example, it may be effected by means of a separate control member which actuates the tape diverting device through a toothed gearing. It has proved advantageous to use a servo motor for pivoting the tape diverting device. A simple construction which is highly effective for operating the apparatus is obtained when the tape diverting device is pivoted by means of a handle having a part which extends above the drum and preferably acts as a cover for the drum.
An advantageous starting position for winding the tape around the drum and a particularly accurate winding operation is obtained if a tape guide arrangement is provided on the drum and is caused to bear the tape on the tape guide when the cassette is placed in the operative position.
Further, it has proved highly advantageous for the tape diverting device to have two tape guide studs which when the cassette is placed on the apparatus engage the tape. One of these studs, with the tape wound on the drum, guides the tape with respect to the drum, whilst the other stud holds the part of the tape travelling between the said one stud and the cassette spaced away from the drum and may, if required, divert the tape.
To obtain a high degree of reliability, the following features have been found to be of advantage. The first feature is that the on/off switch of the apparatus can be operated when the tape diverting device is pivoted. Further, the tape diverting device may operate a locking device which, with the tape wound around the drum, locks the cassette in its position on the apparatus. In this case the locking device preferably also acts to prevent cassettes from being placed on the apparatus when the tape guide stud has been pivoted towards the drum. Also, it has proved of advantage that when the tape diverting device is being pivoted, preferably at the beginning of its movement, any mode of operation of the apparatus can be stopped, for example by actuation of an automatic stop or by returning the mode switch to its inoperative position.
Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. (Royal Philips Electronics Inc.), most commonly known as Philips, (Euronext: PHIA, NYSE: PHG) is a multinational Dutch electronics corporation.
Philips is one of the largest electronics companies in the world. In 2009, its sales were €23.18 billion. The company employs 115,924 people in more than 60 countries.
Philips is organized in a number of sectors: Philips Consumer Lifestyles (formerly Philips Consumer Electronics and Philips Domestic Appliances and Personal Care), Philips Lighting and Philips Healthcare (formerly Philips Medical Systems).
he company was founded in 1891 by Gerard Philips, a maternal cousin of Karl Marx, in Eindhoven, Netherlands. Its first products were light bulbs and other electro-technical equipment. Its first factory survives as a museum devoted to light sculpture. In the 1920s, the company started to manufacture other products, such as vacuum tubes (also known worldwide as 'valves'), In 1927 they acquired the British electronic valve manufacturers Mullard and in 1932 the German tube manufacturer Valvo, both of which became subsidiaries. In 1939 they introduced their electric razor, the Philishave (marketed in the USA using the Norelco brand name).
Philips was also instrumental in the revival of the Stirling engine.
As a chip maker, Philips Semiconductors was among the Worldwide Top 20 Semiconductor Sales Leaders.
In December 2005 Philips announced its intention to make the Semiconductor Division into a separate legal entity. This process of "disentanglement" was completed on 1 October 2006.
On 2 August 2006, Philips completed an agreement to sell a controlling 80.1% stake in Philips Semiconductors to a consortium of private equity investors consisting of Kohlberg Kravis Roberts & Co. (KKR), Silver Lake Partners and AlpInvest Partners. The sale completed a process, which began December 2005, with its decision to create a separate legal entity for Semiconductors and to pursue all strategic options. Six weeks before, ahead of its online dialogue, through a letter to 8,000 of Philips managers, it was announced that they were speeding up the transformation of Semiconductors into a stand-alone entity with majority ownership by a third party. It was stated then that "this is much more than just a transaction: it is probably the most significant milestone on a long journey of change for Philips and the beginning of a new chapter for everyone – especially those involved with Semiconductors".
In its more than 115 year history, this counts as a big step that is definitely changing the profile of the company. Philips was one of few companies that successfully made the transition from the electrical world of the 19th century into the electronic age, starting its semiconductor activity in 1953 and building it into a global top 10 player in its industry. As such, Semiconductors was at the heart of many innovations in Philips over the past 50 years.
Agreeing to start a process that would ultimately lead to the decision to sell the Semiconductor Division therefore was one of the toughest decisions that the Board of Management ever had to make.
On 21 August 2006, Bain Capital and Apax Partners announced that they had signed definitive commitments to join the expanded consortium headed by KKR that is to acquire the controlling stake in the Semiconductors Division.
On 1 September 2006, it was announced in Berlin that the name of the new semiconductor company founded by Philips is NXP Semiconductors.
Coinciding with the sale of the Semiconductor Division, Philips also announced that they would drop the word 'Electronics' from the company name, thus becoming simply Koninklijke Philips N.V. (Royal Philips N.V.).
In the early years of Philips & Co., the representation of the company name took many forms: one was an emblem formed by the initial letters of Philips & Co., and another was the word Philips printed on the glass of metal filament lamps.
One of the very first campaigns was launched in 1898 when Anton Philips used a range of postcards showing the Dutch national costumes as marketing tools. Each letter of the word Philips was printed in a row of light bulbs as at the top of every card. In the late 1920s, the Philips name began to take on the form that we recognize today.
The now familiar Philips waves and stars first appeared in 1926 on the packaging of miniwatt radio valves, as well as on the Philigraph, an early sound recording device. The waves symbolized radio waves, while the stars represented the ether of the evening sky through which the radio waves would travel.
In 1930 it was the first time that the four stars flanking the three waves were placed together in a circle. After that, the stars and waves started appearing on radios and gramophones, featuring this circle as part of their design. Gradually the use of the circle emblem was then extended to advertising materials and other products.
At this time Philips’ business activities were expanding rapidly and the company wanted to find a trademark that would uniquely represent Philips, but one that would also avoid legal problems with the owners of other well-known circular emblems. This wish resulted in the combination of the Philips circle and the wordmark within the shield emblem.
In 1938, the Philips shield made its first appearance. Although modified over the years, the basic design has remained constant ever since and, together with the wordmark, gives Philips the distinctive identity that is still embraced today.
Gerard Leonard Frederik Philips (October 9, 1858, in Zaltbommel – January 27, 1942, in The Hague, Netherlands) was a Dutch industrialist, co-founder (with his father Frederik Philips) of the Philips Company as a family business in 1891. Gerard and his younger brother Anton Philips changed the business to a corporation by founding in 1912 the NV Philips' Gloeilampenfabrieken. As the first CEO of the Philips corporation, Gerard laid with Anton the base for the later Philips multinational.
Early life and education
Gerard was the first son of Benjamin Frederik David Philips (1 December 1830 – 12 June 1900) and Maria Heyligers (1836 – 1921). His father was active in the tobacco business and a banker at Zaltbommel in the Netherlands; he was a first cousin of Karl Marx.
Gerard Philips became interested in electronics and engineering. Frederik was the financier for Gerard's purchase of the old factory building in Eindhoven where he established the first factory in 1891. They operated the Philips Company as a family business for more than a decade.
Marriage and family
On March 19, 1896 Philips married Johanna van der Willigen (30 September 1862 – 1942). They had no children.
Gerard was an uncle of Frits Philips, whom he and his brother brought into the business. Later they brought in his brother's grandson, Franz Otten.
Gerard and his brother Anton supported education and social programs in Eindhoven, including the Philips Sport Vereniging (Philips Sports Association), which they founded. From it the professional football (soccer) department developed into the independent Philips Sport Vereniging N.V.
Anton Frederik Philips (March 14, 1874, Zaltbommel, Gelderland – October 7, 1951, Eindhoven) co-founded Royal Philips Electronics N.V. in 1912 with his older brother Gerard Philips in Eindhoven, the Netherlands. He served as CEO of the company from 1922 to 1939.
Early life and education
Anton was born to Maria Heyligers (1836 – 1921) and Benjamin Frederik David Philips (December 1, 1830 – June 12, 1900). His father was active in the tobacco business and a banker at Zaltbommel in the Netherlands. (He was a first cousin to Karl Marx.) Anton's brother Gerard was 16 years older.
In May 1891 the father Frederik was the financier and, with his son Gerard Philips, co-founder of the Philips Company as a family business. In 1912 Anton joined the firm, which they named Royal Philips Electronics N.V.
During World War I, Anton Philips managed to increase sales by taking advantage of a boycott of German goods in several countries. He provided the markets with alternative products.
Anton (and his brother Gerard) are remembered as being civic-minded. In Eindhoven they supported education and social programs and facilities, such as the soccer department of the Philips Sports Association as the best-known example.
Anton Philips brought his son Frits Philips and grandson Franz Otten into the company in their times. Anton took the young Franz Otten with him and other family members to escape the Netherlands just before the Nazi Occupation during World War II; they went to the United States. They returned after the war.
His son Frits Philips chose to stay and manage the company during the occupation; he survived several months at the concentration camp of Vught after his workers went on strike. He saved the lives of 382 Jews by claiming them as indispensable to his factory, and thus helped them evade Nazi roundups and deportation to concentration camps.
Philips died in Eindhoven in 1951.
Marriage and family
Philips married Anne Henriëtte Elisabeth Maria de Jongh (Amersfoort, May 30, 1878 – Eindhoven, March 7, 1970). They had the following children:
* Anna Elisabeth Cornelia Philips (June 19, 1899 – ?), married in 1925 to Pieter Franciscus Sylvester Otten (1895 – 1969), and had:
o Diek Otten
o Franz Otten (b. c. 1928 - d. 1967), manager in the Dutch electronics company Philips
* Frederik Jacques Philips (1905-2005)
* Henriëtte Anna Philips (Eindhoven, October 26, 1906 – ?), married firstly to A. Knappert (d. 1932), without issue; married secondly to G. Jonkheer Sandberg (d. September 5, 1935), without issue; and married thirdly in New York City, New York, on September 29, 1938 to Jonkheer Gerrit van Riemsdijk (Aerdenhout, January 10, 1911 – Eindhoven, November 8, 2005). They had the following children:
o ..., Jonkheerin Gerrit van Riemsdijk (b. Waalre, October 2, 1939), married at Waalre on February 17, 1968 to Johannes Jasper Tuijt (b. Atjeh, Koeta Radja, March 10, 1930), son of Jacobus Tuijt and wife Hedwig Jager, without issue
o ..., Jonkheerin Gerrit van Riemsdijk (b. Waalre, April 3, 1946), married firstly at Calvados, Falaise, on June 6, 1974 to Martinus Jan Petrus Vermooten (Utrecht, September 16, 1939 – Falaise, August 29, 1978), son of Martinus Vermooten and wife Anna Pieternella Hendrika Kwantes, without issue; married secondly in Paris on December 12, 1981 to Jean Yves Louis Bedos (Calvados, Rémy, January 9, 1947 – Calvados, Lisieux, October 5, 1982), son of Georges Charles Bedos and wife Henriette Louise Piel, without issue; and married thirdly at Manche, Sartilly, on September 21, 1985 to Arnaud Evain (b. Ardennes, Sedan, July 7, 1952), son of Jean Claude Evain and wife Flore Halleux, without issue
o ..., Jonkheerin Gerrit van Riemsdijk (b. Waalre, September 4, 1948), married at Waalre, October 28, 1972 to Elie Johan François van Dissel (b. Eindhoven, October 9, 1948), son of Willem Pieter
(To see the Internal Chassis Just click on Older Post Button on bottom page, that's simple !)